Color is measured on a scale from colorless to shades of color with colorless being the rarest and most expensive.
The Gemological Institute of America (GIA) use a color grading scale of D-Z, colorless to shades of color
respectively. As mentioned above diamonds come in different colors and anything outside this color scale are
referred to as "Fancy Colors". The rarest and most expensive diamonds are considered Fancy Colors which include
red, pink, blue, and green.
Different diamond cuts have been developed to best utilize a diamond's material properties. The cut of a diamond creates a somewhat symmetrical arrangement of facets that modifies the shape and appearance of the
diamond. Several cuts have been used when shaping and polishing a diamond with the most common being:
Clarity is judged upon the amount of inclusions and blemishes a diamond has. An inclusion is growth
crystals inside a diamond whereas blemishes can be scratches and nicks on the diamond's surface. Clarity
in diamonds is graded using the following scale:
- F1 Flawless - no inclusions or blemishes within view under 10X magnification
- IF Internally Flawless - no inclusions but minor blemishes when viewed under 10X magnification
- VVS1 & VVS2 Very Very Slightly Included - minute inclusions difficult to view under 10X magnification
- VS1 & VS2 Very Slightly Included - minute inclusions commonly crystals, clouds or feathers when viewed under 10X magnification
- SI1 & SI2 Slightly Included - inclusions are contained suchs as crystals, clouds, knots, cavities, cleavage and feathers when viewed under 10X magnification
- I1 - I3 Included - inclusions such as large crystals or large feathers viewed under 10X magnification and may affect the transparency and brilliance without magnification
Carat weight (ct.) is the unit of measurement to weight a diamond. One carat equals 1/142nd of an ounce, or
1/5th of a gram. Diamonds are weighed into a thousandth of a carat(0.001) and then rounded to the nearest
hundredth. Diamond sizes are also referred to as "Points". One carat is divided into 100 points,
each point is 1/100th of a carat. A "10-point" diamond weighs 1/10th of a carat and a 50-point stone weighs half a carat.